TS. Tran Chi Trung
Ms.. Dang Minh Tuyen
1. A few words on formation and development of Center for Participatory Irrigation Management
Center for Participatory Irrigation Management (called CPIM) under the Institute for Water Resources Research, established by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development through Decision on December 22, 2004 . Accordingly, the Center is the first and only scientific and technial organization which has the function of research and implementation of consulting services on PIM in our country. By 2007, the Prime Minister decided to establish Vietnam Academy of Water Resources on the basis of reorganization, rearrangement of Institute for Water Resources Research and Sourthern Istitute for Water Resources Research, CPIM are ranked according to special position that is suitable with the Vietnam Academy’s rank . CPIM has functions of scientific research serving the public services of the State, participation in training and international cooperation on PIM all over the country.
Formerly, activities on PIM is narrow, scattered, the interest in PIM is not proper. Now with the establishment and development of CPIM, activities on PIM have gathered into a unity, confirmed the position and important role in the industrialization and modernization of rural agriculture, built new countryside. When established, there are only 10 staffs in Center, of which half of them holding concurrently. Through nearly five years of construction and development, to now Center has 27 staffs, including one Professor, one Associate Professor, one PhD, five Masters, and the remainders have university degrees. The Center has a Function department and three specialized research departments, they are Department of policy and system analysis, Department of Cooperation and Water user organization development and Department of on-farm Irrigation development. Center plans to develop, expand activities in many localities all over the country, in near future, CPIM will place a representative office in the South (Ho Chi Minh city) and the establish a joint stock company of services providing and community development.
Center has been implementing various subjects, science and technology projects for the State, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development in the development of PIM, community development, development of irrigation technology internal to the effective management of resources water and management of irrigation efficiency and sustainability. The center also expanded research and application of science and technology results for socio-economic development for the province of Hoa Binh province, Hanoi, Cao Bang. In addition, the center also implemented many consulting services to the local PIM as well as international organizations. Center has expanded international cooperation in the field of PIM, resource management, environment, community development with various international organizations, as INPIM, WBI, the International Water Management Institute (IWMI), University of Copenhagen, Denmark, University of Linkoping, University of Nairobi, University of Tsukuba, Japan, Research Center for Agricultural Policy, Agricultural Academy, Institute of Water Resources Electric And Chinese.
Although new to the work nearly five years, both conducting research, consulting moderate increase additional manpower, facilities built gradually, but with determination and effort overcome the difficulties and counseling center PIM achieved some very encouraging results in developing irrigation management with the participation contribute to the development industry. This paper introduces some results of research and development center on the management consulting PIM Participatory Irrigation in the period 2005-2009.
2. Scientific Research on management participatory irrigation (PIM)
Many studies have shown that irrigation management Participatory (PIM) is the important factor to improve the management efficiency of irrigation. People need to participate actively in the process of planning, design, construction and operation management of irrigation. In time, the Center has done some projects Research on the management of scientific irrigation participatory, including research proposals PIM development policies, decentralization policy, policy transfer of irrigation is to model cooperation for the organization and propose a model organization for the appropriate cooperation with local organizations to establish methods of cooperation for the country, the target measure the performance of the model of the PIM and PIM construction model.
One of the first step of the research center managed participatory irrigation is made subject "Studies suggest socialization model management operations improve management efficiency to exploit the system pumping stations and small medium Red River Delta "(2006-2007). Subject was given the scientific basis of the socialization model management operation and propose appropriate policies and solutions that promote socialization process management operations improve Results management systems to exploit medium and small pumping stations (scale 1-2 social services) is common in the Red River Delta. Subjects applying the model to small transfer pump station HTXNN Crane Thai, Thai Thuy District, Thai Binh. The performance theme is the management agency and the Thai Binh have evaluated scientific and practical high.
Center in collaboration with the Institute of Economics and Management hydraulic implement science and technology topics for the "scientific research facilities and proposed policies on decentralized management of irrigation works to exploit" (2008-2009) . Subjects were given the assessment results the basis of practical decentralization exploitation of irrigation in the whole country, the general provisions on decentralization in 25 provinces, general criteria decentralization in the local practice, the results achieved and the obstacles in the implementation of local decentralization. These results are the basis of practical proposals to convince policy decentralization exploit irrigation is suitable for seven regions across the country, yet the principles decentralization; assigned responsibility manage the irrigation system between the companies and organizations use the collaboration and propose criteria for decentralization is suitable for the regions. Results of research topics is the basis for the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development issued Circular No. 65 dated December 10, 2009, is the legal basis for the local application of decentralization implemented to improve management efficiency exploitation of irrigation in our country.
Fishery management organizations and agricultural facilities currently exist in our country is very diverse, in many forms, organizing different activities in the localities, such as agricultural cooperatives, cooperative use of water, The use water, use water cooperative. To evaluate the performance of the PIM model, the suitability of the model management organization in the provinces, the Center has implemented project "Research on system performance evaluation criteria control model agricultural water management with the participation of the community "(2007-2008). Subjects studied, the proposed system of criteria for evaluating effectiveness of agricultural water management model participatory (model PIM) in service monitoring and analysis, search solutions improve model results. The system of evaluation criteria PIM models have been applied effectively evaluate two models of agricultural water management with the participation of communities in the province of Thai Binh.
To promote the evolution of PIM scale throughout the country, the establishment of a PIM model all the needs a proper method, prescribed steps to establish cooperatives for the norms of human and funding for these activities. To solve this problem, the Center has implemented project "Research proposed facility construction guidelines in the operation of the PIM the construction of irrigation (2008-2009). Subject was conducted evaluating current status and classification of countries and organizations use to calculate the volume of activities on the basis that the unit price identified funding for activities with the appropriate PIM for localities across the country. Results of research topics is the basis for submission to the authorities issued instructions to set the PIM in irrigation investment activities, facilitate the development of extensive PIM.
3. Scientific research to develop the local irrigation technology
Irrigation development in general and developing irrigation systems in particular is the internal important task in the modernization of irrigation, agricultural development and rural development. Functions and responsibilities under the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development approval, the Center has focused on scientific research to develop the local irrigation technology, is an area critical to improving management efficiency of irrigation. Topics of scientific research has focused on modernizing the field irrigation system interior field, the solution to prevent drought for agriculture development, operational processes, efficient management of irrigation and application of technology to save water for irrigation of crops, re-use of wastewater in agriculture.
Research project "Modernization of the irrigation and domestic service some models of change production structure of the Red River Delta" (2005-2006) proposed models for the planning of infrastructure for rural 4 models for the conversion of production: i) model combines intensive rice and aquaculture models converted from agricultural production to aquaculture production of aquatic birds-and VAC (Ha Nam, Bac Ninh ); ii) model shift from rice monoculture to coastal aquaculture (Ninh Binh); iii) model-intensive high-quality rice and vegetables Hong Nghia, Nghia Hung, Nam Dinh and proposed solutions for the modernization of irrigation in the direction of the internal modernization and management solutions to exploit the internal irrigation towards modernization.
Before the state took the unusual weather the increasingly unfavorable trends, issues scarce water resources, water pollution is becoming serious, the Center has done document of state-level "R Research applications of science and technology solutions for drought prevention and sustainable agricultural development in northern mountainous provinces (2008-2010). To date, more than a year after implementation, the project has given the technology solutions solve the most fundamental problem preventing drought for sustainable agricultural development, such as science and technology solutions revenue , water storage, protecting the soil and keep moist not have irrigation works; Management Solutions, operation of irrigation systems to improve the efficiency optimum water; water saving irrigation regime, irrigation techniques for rice, sugarcane and fruit trees; To build a demonstration model of water storage solutions to science and technology collection, protection of soil and hold moisture for fruit; irrigation regime for rice intensification system improvements ( SRI) and model performance management software operating system hydraulic Cam Son-Cau Son. Some research results initially reported in the international conference in Bangkok on solutions cultivated for rice irrigation on water saving irrigation system is highly appreciated. Research project "proposal Nhu Quynh pumping station operated" (2007-2008) studied the basis of theoretical and practical operation of pumping stations and the proposed pumping station operation process Nhu Quynh, Bac Giang to improve efficiency of irrigation management.
In the field of research solutions using science and technology to save water, the Center made two research projects at provincial level on the application of technology to save water for irrigation in the province of Hoa Binh plant pineapple and grapefruit trees in TP. Hanoi. Research project "Research model for irrigation water saving plant pineapple farm land in steep river Boi Hoa Binh (2007-2008) was the result of pineapple plants are irrigated yield reached 55 tons / ha / services, up 30% compared with the case without irrigation. Project "Research on application technology of water saving irrigation for fruit trees suburban areas of Hanoi (2008-2009) showed that application of drip irrigation techniques are highly effective water-saving irrigation techniques compared common trench, the water is provided directly to water for crop loss nen.ton soaked deep, flowing spill, loss almost too low. Irrigation regimes applied by the optimal humidity for drip irrigation system for trees grapefruit ensuring adequate supply of water needs of plants just to ensure the humidity is relatively evenly distributed in the soil layer cultivation are important factors to ensure increased productivity grapefruit trees, crops that have high economic value are being developed in the outskirts of Hanoi. Research results from the model is the basis of scientific and practical for researchers and farmers in the outskirts of the province in general and in Hanoi in particular developing applications of modern irrigation technology to play Development planting trees of high economic value crops such as grapefruit to economic development of households.
In addition to the application of technology solutions to save water for irrigation of crops, the center also make research project "Re-use of wastewater in agriculture in Vietnam" (2005-2006) to study the effects of Urban wastewater use in agricultural production and aquaculture in our country. Project conducted nationwide surveys on the use of wastewater, the effects of economic, health, environment and organize the research in Nam Dinh details. Important results of the project is proposing policies and institutions of technology in planning use of wastewater for agricultural production-fishery suburban areas.
4. Perform consulting services for PIM
Along with scientific research, the Center has implemented to promote more consultation services for the local PIM and especially for international organizations. PIM consulting services primarily to provide training services, establishment of cooperatives for the country, encouraging people to participate in managing the exploitation of irrigation systems effectively and sustainably, community development.
Center has done consulting and training with the PIM, the project "Support to Vietnam-irrigation project VWRAP by World Bank funding for six major irrigation systems in Vietnam, including Son-Cam system Cau Son, Yen Lap, Ke Go, Phu Ninh, Da Ban, Dau Tieng (2007-2010). In this project, the Center has held two national conference, six workshops at provincial level to develop uniform guidelines for the six PIM irrigation system above. Center has compiled training materials and organization of two training sessions for local TOT, six training courses on PIM for companies and 52 training courses on PIM and O & M for the Organization for the cooperation. This project is the number of training and the number of students involved the largest ever. Effectiveness of the training was the World Bank and other local appreciation.
Also in VWRAP projects, in addition to consulting and training component, the Center also perform consulting "Managing irrigation participatory people's PIM, the organization supporting the development of Japan-supported project JSDF . In this project, the Center on behalf of the Management Board of the Central Irrigation Project (CPO) management of three non-governmental organizations to establish organizations in cooperation using the six sub-projects supported under the project irrigation Vietnam (VWRAP). Results of the main project is the compilation of documentation be established using the established organization, supervision and guidance three non-governmental organization formed by 66 cooperatives in the country for six primary Project Cam Son-Causon, Yen Lap, Ke Go, Phu Ninh, Da Ban, Dau Tieng. The cooperatives are using the PIM model will be established or strengthened by marine farm organizations existing facilities to manage the system of internal channels in the six irrigation system of the project. This project has established the number of PIM models most ever. Evaluation results to date indicate that the cooperatives have used water into a stable and efficient operation.
With funding from the French development agency (AFD), the Center has implemented the project "Strengthening the institutional consultant to the Center for PIM and support implementation of management exploiting irrigation works are participatory Date of people in Son La and Ninh Thuan (2008-2010). The main objective of the project are: (i) strengthen the capacity of the center consulting PIM, contributing extensively propagating the concept of PIM and successful implementation of the tasks assigned MARD, especially advice to the Ministry and the Government in the process of implementing the legal framework on the management and exploitation of irrigation works to increase the effectiveness of technical and economic activities and (ii) Support to advise the Son La province of Ninh Thuan and identify and implement action plans on management of irrigation is the participation of users. This will apply to new buildings built in the framework of the irrigation infrastructure projects financed by AFD.
Within the framework of project "Strengthening of irrigation management through participatory Science Institute of Water Resources-Project Development CDPIM held by Japan (JICA) assistance, the Center hosted PIM component training and build models PIM points in Hop Tien commune, Nam Sach district, Hai Duong. The staff of the Center hosted compiled training materials on PIM for companies and organizations use KTCTTL countries, organizations and participate in implementation of 20 training sessions for companies in many provinces of the same Red River Delta and 2 training for farmers in agricultural cooperatives Hop Tien. Within the framework of project "Management of water resources integrated river basin Both" funded by DANIDA, the staff of the Center has hosted the development of PIM in Nghe An and Ha Tinh. Results of the main project is the compilation of training materials and PIM established two organizations for the cooperation of the Association for Khe village in Nghe An and cooperative use of water pumping station in Ha Tinh Duc Vinh . The PIM model is to present operational efficiency, held DANIDA and local appreciation.
Besides consulting services to establish cooperation for the organization, the Center is the focal point to organize a National Workshop and regional development community in general and in particular PIM. Workshops typically large scale such as the International Training Workshop on "Participation of the community in integrated basin management" funded by InWEnt, held in Thanh Hoa on 11-2005; National Seminar "Reuse of wastewater in agriculture in Vietnam" - held in Hanoi, month 5-2006; National Seminar-Duras POPSE project "Support to small and medium enterprises in connection with agricultural marketing school for poverty reduction "in Hanoi on 8-2006; National Workshop on" Developing PIM through the use of water "in Ha Long Bay, from 11 to 13 May 2007.
Along with the activities of PIM, the center also actively involved in supporting community development and agricultural services, access to markets. In this direction, the Center implemented research project "strategy to remove poverty in irrigation agriculture in Vietnam" (2004-2005). This project studied the causes of poverty, the impact of irrigation to poverty alleviation and proposals for institutional policy management solutions and technology, the program supports the development planning Irrigation for poverty alleviation. Irrigation project in the Red River 2, Section A: Administration of water resources, Phase 2, staff of the Center has implemented training sessions for local guides in Thai Nguyen and Bac Kan, supporting the local guide in the implementation of village meetings / neighbor, to identify social issues integrated management of water resources for poverty reduction, gender equity.
5. Instead of words link
PIM is important factor to improve the management efficiency of irrigation. PIM successful development in recent years have shown that PIM has really come into the lives of people. PIM is the central consulting organization science and technology first and only study the function and performance of consulting services for PIM. Although newly formed, and goes to work five years, the Center has achieved some results on the development of irrigation management with the participation, gradually affirmed its role and importance of field to improve management efficiency irrigation exploitation, contributing to the development of agriculture, farmers and rural areas in our country.
PIM development is a task the importance of agriculture sector, also many new, so also the difficulties and challenges when deployed over a large area. PIM is a concept easy to understand, but difficult to implement, because PIM development related to many different departments. To promote the development of PIM in the country, in addition to the efforts of the Center consultant PIM, requires attention, strong investment by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, the cooperation and support departments at central and local methods. /.